A new threat from an old enemy: Re-emergence of coronavirus (Review)

Anca Oana Docea*, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Dana Albulescu, Oana Cristea, Ovidiu Zlatian, Marco Vinceti, Sterghios A. Moschos, Dimitris Tsoukalas, Marina Goumenou, Nikolaos Drakoulis, Josef M. Dumanov1, Victor A. Tutelyan, Gennadii G. Onischenko, Michael Aschner, Demetrios A. Spandidos, Daniela Calina

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

104 Citations (Scopus)
7 Downloads (Pure)


The new outbreak of coronavirus from December 2019 has brought attention to an old viral enemy and has raised concerns as to the ability of current protection measures and the healthcare system to handle such a threat. It has been known since the 1960s that coronaviruses can cause respiratory infections in humans; however, their epidemic potential was understood only during the past two decades. In the present review, we address current knowledge on coronaviruses from a short history to epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation of the disease, as well as treatment and prevention strategies. Although a great amount of research and efforts have been made worldwide to prevent further outbreaks of coronavirus‑associated disease, the spread and lethality of the 2019 outbreak (COVID‑19) is proving to be higher than previous epidemics on account of international travel density and immune naivety of the population. Only strong, joint and coordinated efforts of worldwide healthcare systems, researchers, and pharmaceutical companies and receptive national leaders will succeed in suppressing an outbreak of this scale.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1631-1643
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Medicine
Issue number6
Early online date27 Mar 2020
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020


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