Studies oriented to restoration and conservation of historical monumental buildings have recourse to structural analysis as a way to investigate the genuine structural features of the construction, to better understand its present condition and actual causes of existing damage, to estimate its safety conditions and to determine necessary remedial measures. Based on this background, this paper discusses on the seismic vulnerability of masonry fortresses by means of an analysis methodology based on three different analytical procedures, according to an increased knowledge of the structure. As a relevant case study the Albornoz fortress, a 14th stone masonry construction located in central Italy, was selected. Initially, the strategy proposed to perform this task was aimed at testing and developing an expeditious and non-destructive procedure to evaluate both the seismic vulnerability and the main mechanical properties of the different masonry typologies. The macroscale structural behavior of the fortress was then evaluated through a nonlinear static analysis (pushover) and a more simple approach based on the kinematic theorems of the limit analysis. From this point of view, by comparing the capacity of the construction to withstand lateral loads with the expected demands resulting from seismic actions, these methods provided a highly effective means of verifying the safety of the masonry structure and its vulnerability to extensive damage and collapse.