Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) describes the post exercise phenomenon of acute airway narrowing in association with physical activity. A high prevalence of EIB is reported in both athletic and recreationally active populations. Without treatment, EIB has the potential to impact upon both health and performance. It is now acknowledged that clinical assessment alone is insufficient as a sole means of diagnosing airway dysfunction due to the poor predictive value of symptoms. Furthermore, a broad differential diagnosis has been established for EIB, prompting the requirement of objective evidence of airway narrowing to secure an accurate diagnosis. This article provides an appraisal of recent advances in available methodologies, with the principle aim of optimising diagnostic assessment, treatment and overall clinical care.