An Intelligent In-Shoe System for Gait Monitoring and Analysis with Optimized Sampling and Real-Time Visualization Capabilities

Jiaen Wu, Kiran Kuruvithadam, Alessandro Schaer, Richie Stoneham, George Chatzipirpiridis, Chris Awai Easthope, Gill Barry, James Martin, Salvador Pané, Bradley J. Nelson, Olgaç Ergeneman, Hamdi Torun*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
6 Downloads (Pure)


The deterioration of gait can be used as a biomarker for ageing and neurological diseases. Continuous gait monitoring and analysis are essential for early deficit detection and personalized rehabilitation. The use of mobile and wearable inertial sensor systems for gait monitoring and analysis have been well explored with promising results in the literature. However, most of these studies focus on technologies for the assessment of gait characteristics, few of them have considered the data acquisition bandwidth of the sensing system. Inadequate sampling frequency will sacrifice signal fidelity, thus leading to an inaccurate estimation especially for spatial gait parameters. In this work, we developed an inertial sensor based in-shoe gait analysis system for real-time gait monitoring and investigated the optimal sampling frequency to capture all the information on walking patterns. An exploratory validation study was performed using an optical motion capture system on four healthy adult subjects, where each person underwent five walking sessions, giving a total of 20 sessions. Percentage mean absolute errors (MAE%) obtained in stride time, stride length, stride velocity, and cadence while walking were 1.19%, 1.68%, 2.08%, and 1.23%, respectively. In addition, an eigenanalysis based graphical descriptor from raw gait cycle signals was proposed as a new gait metric that can be quantified by principal component analysis to differentiate gait patterns, which has great potential to be used as a powerful analytical tool for gait disorder diagnostics.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2869
Number of pages22
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 19 Apr 2021


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