Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques have been used for decades to study brain function and for the treatment of various neurological disease. These techniques involve the passage of electrical current or magnetic field in a controlled manner to a targeted brain area. Recently, experimental studies explored the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the improvement of physical performance in healthy individuals. In this chapter we reviewed and analyzed the current scientific literature, highlighted methodological limitations and also suggested possible neurophysiological mechanisms. The chapter also provides some technical and theoretical research-based principles for future research, to promote a better understanding of potential and caveats of this emerging field. Finally, ethical and regulatory issues related to performance enhancement via non-invasive brain stimulation are also discussed.