Characteristics of real-world gaseous exhaust emissions from cars in heterogeneous traffic conditions

Sudheer Kumar Kuppili, V. Dheeraj Alshetty, M. Diya, S. M. Shiva Nagendra*, Gitakrishnan Ramadurai, A. Ramesh, Sunil Gulia, Anil Namdeo, Kamal Maji, Margaret Bell, Paul Goodman, Enda Hayes, Jo Barnes, James Longhurst, Laura De Vito

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)


In this study, researchers have explored real-world driving conditions and developed emission factors for 58 passenger cars using on-board emission measurement technique while driving on five different routes in Delhi. The measured average emission factors of CO, HC, and NO were 3.99, 0.34, and 0.54 g/km for diesel vehicles, 7.26, 0.17, and 0.62 for petrol vehicles respectively. Road, traffic, vehicle type, and driving characteristics affect the quantity of emissions released. However, speed and acceleration significantly impact emission rates increasing with the increase in speed and acceleration. Also, emissions were minimal at 40–60 kmph and −0.5–0.5 m/s2. The estimated city-wide CO, HC, and NO emissions were 60.8, 4.8, and 9.72tonnes/day. These results demonstrate the importance of monitoring the real-world exhaust emissions given the substantial difference between test cycle measurements used for compliance testing of new vehicles.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102855
Number of pages13
JournalTransportation Research, Part D: Transport and Environment
Early online date30 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2021


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