CLASS: Cloud Log Assuring Soundness and Secrecy Scheme for Cloud Forensics

M A Manazir Ahsan, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab, Mohd. Yamani Idna Idris, Suleman Khan, Eric Bachura, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


User activity logs can be a valuable source of information in cloud forensic investigations; hence, ensuring the reliability and integrity of such logs is crucial. Most existing solutions for secure logging are designed for conventional systems rather than the complexity of a cloud environment. In this paper, we propose the Cloud Log Assuring Soundness and Secrecy (CLASS) process as an alternative scheme for the securing of logs in a cloud environment. In CLASS, logs are encrypted using the individual user's public key so that only the user is able to decrypt the content. In order to prevent unauthorized modification of the log, we generate proof of past log (PPL) using Rabin's fingerprint and Bloom filter. Such an approach reduces verification time significantly. Findings from our experiments deploying CLASS in OpenStack demonstrate the utility of CLASS in a real-world context.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)184-196
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Sustainable Computing
Issue number2
Early online date7 May 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2021
Externally publishedYes


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