Current Enhancement via a TiO2 Window Layer for CSS Sb2Se3 Solar Cells: Performance Limits and High V oc

Laurie J. Phillips*, Christopher N. Savory, Oliver S. Hutter, Peter J. Yates, Huw Shiel, Silvia Mariotti, Leon Bowen, Max Birkett, Ken Durose, David O. Scanlon, Jonathan D. Major

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)


Antimony selenide (Sb 2 Se 3 ) is an emerging chalcogenide photovoltaic absorber material that has been the subject of increasing interest in recent years, demonstrating rapid efficiency increases with a material that is simple, abundant, and stable. This paper examines the material from both a theoretical and practical standpoint. The theoretical viability of Sb 2 Se 3 as a solar photovoltaic material is assessed and the maximum spectroscopically limited performance is estimated, with a 200 nm film expected to be capable of achieving a photon conversion efficiency of up to 28.2%. By adapting an existing CdTe close-spaced sublimation (CSS) process, Sb 2 Se 3 material with large rhubarb-like grains is produced and solar cells are fabricated. We show that the established CdS window layer is unsuitable for use with CSS, due to intermixing during higher temperature processing. Substituting CdS with the more stable TiO 2 , a power conversion efficiency of 5.5% and an open-circuit voltage V oc of 0.45 V are achieved; the voltage exceeding current champion devices. This paper demonstrates the potential of CSS for scalable Sb 2 Se 3 deposition and highlights the promise of Sb 2 Se 3 as an abundant and low-toxicity material for solar applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8581508
Pages (from-to)544-551
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Journal of Photovoltaics
Issue number2
Early online date19 Dec 2018
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019
Externally publishedYes


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