Development and Validation of a New Multidimensional Measure of Inspiration: Associations with Risk for Bipolar Disorder

Steven Jones*, Alyson Dodd, June Gruber

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)


Background - Individuals at risk for, and diagnosed with, bipolar disorder (BD) appear to have heightened levels of creativity. Although inspiration is creativity, the ways in which individuals appraise and respond emotionally to inspiration in BD remain unexplored. Method - The present study reports on a new measure of inspiration (External and Internal Sources of Inspiration Scale - EISI). The reliability and validity of EISI were explored along with associations between EISI and BD risk. Results - Among a cross-national student sample (N = 708) 5 inspiration factors were derived from EISI (self, other, achievement, prosocial and external inspiration). Reliability, concurrent validity and convergent/divergent validity were good. Total EISI and all subscales were associated with increased positive rumination, and total EISI and the achievement EISI subscale were associated with impulsivity. Total EISI, self and prosocial EISI subscales were independently associated with BD risk and current mania symptoms. Conclusion - This new measure of inspiration is multidimensional, reliable and valid. Findings suggest that self and prosocial focused inspiration are particularly associated with risk for BD after controlling for current manic symptoms. Future studies in clinical populations may illuminate the relationships between inspiration and creativity in BD.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere91669
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalPLoS One
Issue number3
Early online date26 Mar 2014
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 26 Mar 2014


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