Development of the CLARIFY (CheckList stAndardising the Reporting of Interventions For Yoga) guidelines: a Delphi study

Lesley Ward*, Daryl Nault, Holger Cramer, Steffany Moonaz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Background: The use of yoga as a therapeutic modality is increasing; however, a lack of transparent intervention reporting is restricting the dissemination and implementation of yoga research into clinical and community practice. The aim of this study was to develop a yoga-specific reporting guideline as an extension to existing reporting guidelines for randomised controlled trials, observational studies and case reports. Methods: Recognised international stakeholders in the design and conduct of yoga research were invited to contribute to the electronic Delphi survey. A four-round Delphi was conducted, whereby panellists rated selected items for their importance in the inclusion of yoga reporting guidelines, according to a 5-step Likert scale. A priori consensus for item inclusion was agreement of items as ‘Very important’ or ‘Extremely important’ by ≥80% of panellists. Non-consensus items were forwarded to subsequent rounds for re-rating. Results: 53 experts in yoga research from 11 countries, primarily identifying as researchers (50%), allied health professionals (18.8%) and yoga professionals (12.5%), consented to participate in the Delphi. Of these, 48 completed Round 1 (91%), 43 completed Round 2 (81%), 39 completed Round 3 (74%) and 32 completed Round 4 (60%). Panellists reached consensus for inclusion on 21 items, grouped under 10 domains reflective of more generic intervention-based guidelines. Conclusions: The consensus-based 21-item CLARIFY (CheckList stAndardising the Reporting of Interventions For Yoga) checklist provides a minimum reporting template for researchers across a range of methodology designs. Use of these yoga-specific guidelines, in conjunction with the CLARIFY explanation and elaboration guidelines, will standardise the minimum level of detail required for transparent yoga intervention, facilitating the replication, dissemination and implementation of yoga research. Ongoing research will assess the uptake and impact of CLARIFY, to ensure these guidelines retain their relevance to the internationally growing field of yoga research.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere054585
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022


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