Glass-metal objects from archaeological excavation: Corrosion study

Elzieta Greiner-Wronowa*, Dominika Zabiegaj, Paolo Piccardo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This paper contributes to the investigations on history, technology, and degradation of middle age objects (metallic rings with mounted glass beads) recently excavated under the Main Square in Krakow (Poland). Moreover, they were discovered in soil layers differing by chemical composition and microclimate parameters. Historical material is indeed very limited in terms of quantity and sample size, and the following nondestructive analyses were applied: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). The glass and the metal were separately tested. Metallography on cross-sections (by both optical and scanning electron microscopy) was applied only on microfragments sampled from metallic rings. The achieved results pointed out how the local microclimate affected the degradation of the analyzed rings developing locally different corrosion processes. Each tested glass of "ring eye" shows a specific chemical composition. All glass pieces were covered by silica gel, and locally more advanced corrosion has been found.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)999-1008
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2013
Externally publishedYes


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