How does dialect exposure affect learning to read and spell? An artificial orthography study

Glenn. P. Williams, Nikolay Panayotov, Vera Kempe*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Correlational studies have demonstrated detrimental effects of exposure to a mismatch between a nonstandard dialect at home and a mainstream variety at school on children’s literacy skills. However, dialect exposure often is confounded with reduced home literacy, negative teacher expectation, and more limited educational opportunities. To provide proof of concept for a possible causal relationship between variety mismatch and literacy skills, we taught adult learners to read and spell an artificial language with or without dialect variants using an artificial orthography. In 3 experiments, we confirmed earlier findings that reading is more error-prone for contrastive words; that is, words for which different variants exist in the input, especially when learners also acquire the joint meanings of these competing variants. Despite this contrastive deficit, no detriment from variety mismatch emerged for reading and spelling of untrained words, a task equivalent to nonword reading tests routinely administered to young schoolchildren. With longer training, we even found a benefit from variety mismatch on reading and spelling of untrained words. We suggest that such a dialect benefit in literacy learning can arise when competition between different variants leads learners to favor phonologically mediated decoding. Our findings should help to assuage educators’ concerns about detrimental effects of linguistic diversity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2344-2375
Number of pages32
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: General
Issue number12
Early online date30 Apr 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2020
Externally publishedYes


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