Intensity dependent residual amplitude modulation in electro-optic phase modulators

Juna Sathian*, Esa Jaatinen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Residual amplitude modulation (RAM) mechanisms in electro-optic phase modulators are detrimental in applications that require high purity phase modulation of the incident laser beam. While the origins of RAMare not fully understood, measurements have revealed that it depends on the beam properties of the laser as well as the properties of the medium. Here we present experimental and theoretical results that demonstrate, for the first time, the dependence of RAM production in electro-optic phase modulators on beam intensity. The results show an order of magnitude increase in the level of RAM, around 10 dB, with a fifteenfold enhancement in the input intensity from 12 to 190 mW/mm2. We show that this intensity dependent RAM is photorefractive in origin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3684-3691
Number of pages8
JournalApplied Optics
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2012
Externally publishedYes


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