Localisation of Sensor Nodes with Hybrid Measurements in Wireless Sensor Networks

Muhammad Waqas Khan, Naveed Salman, Andrew Kemp, Lyudmila Mihaylova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)


Localisation in wireless networks faces challenges such as high levels of signal attenuation and unknown path-loss exponents, especially in urban environments. In response to these challenges, this paper proposes solutions to localisation problems in noisy environments. A new observation model for localisation of static nodes is developed based on hybrid measurements, namely angle of
arrival and received signal strength data. An approach for localisation of sensor nodes is proposed as a weighted linear least squares algorithm. The unknown path-loss exponent associated with the received signal strength is estimated jointly with the coordinates of the sensor nodes via the generalised pattern search method. The algorithm’s performance validation is conducted both theoretically and by simulation. A theoretical mean square error expression is derived, followed
by the derivation of the linear Cramer-Rao bound which serves as a benchmark for the proposed location estimators. Accurate results are demonstrated with 25%–30% improvement in estimation
accuracy with a weighted linear least squares algorithm as compared to linear least squares solution
Original languageEnglish
Article number1143
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jul 2016
Externally publishedYes


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