Long COVID-19 Pulmonary Sequelae and Management Considerations

Afroditi K. Boutou, Andreas Asimakos, Eleni Kortianou, Ioannis Vogiatzis, Argyris Tzouvelekis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
33 Downloads (Pure)


The human coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) and the associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are responsible for the worst global health crisis of the last century. Similarly, to previous coronaviruses leading to past pandemics, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS), a growing body of evidence support that a substantial minority of patients surviving the acute phase of the disease present with long-term sequelae lasting for up to 6 months following acute infection. The clinical spectrum of these manifestations is widespread across multiple organs and consists of the long-COVID-19 syndrome. The aim of the current review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on the pulmonary manifestations of the long COVID-19 syndrome including clinical symptoms, parenchymal, and functional abnormalities, as well as highlight epidemiology, risk factors, and follow-up strategies for early identification and timely therapeutic interventions. The literature data on management considerations including the role of corticosteroids and antifibrotic treatment, as well as the therapeutic potential of a structured and personalized pulmonary rehabilitation program are detailed and discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere838
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Personalized Medicine
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 26 Aug 2021


Dive into the research topics of 'Long COVID-19 Pulmonary Sequelae and Management Considerations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this