Observer effects on the rating of perceived exertion and affect during exercise in recreationally active males

Rachel Winchester, Louise Turner, Kevin Thomas, Les Ansley, Kevin Thompson, Dominic Micklewright, Alan St Clair Gibson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


This study examined the effect of introducing either a male or female observer on the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and affect of male runners during a moderate intensity running task. 10 moderately active men completed three 20-min. moderate intensity running trials at 60% of their peak treadmill running speed. Each participant completed three trials in random order: control, male-observed, and female-observed, where either the male or female observer joined the trial after 10 min. of the trial had elapsed, during which RPE and affect were monitored. The introduction of a female observer caused a significant decrease in RPE, whereas the introduction of a male observer caused a significant increase in RPE compared to the control trial. Affect was higher in the presence of both a male and female observer compared to control. It was concluded that there is a social, interpersonal, psychological dimension to RPE during exercise.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)213-227
JournalPerceptual and Motor Skills
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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