Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of enzymes involved in the pH regulation of metabolically active cells/tissues. Upregulation of the CAIX/XII isoforms is associated with hypoxic tumours and clinically linked with malignant progression, treatment resistance and poor prognosis. The elucidation of the crystal structure of the catalytic domains of CAIX/XII provided the basis for the generation of CAIX/XII selective inhibitors based on the sulfonamide, sulfamate and coumarins chemical structures. Ureido-substituted benzenesulfonamide CAIX/XII inhibitors have shown significant potential, with U-104 (SLC-0111) currently present in clinical Phase I/II. Ureido-substituted sulfamate CAIX/XII inhibitors have received less attention despite encouraging preclinical test results. In triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), ureidosulfamates revealed a significant antitumour (FC9-398A) and antimetastatic potential (S4). In small cell lung cancer (SCLC), a cancer cell type very sensitive to a dysregulation in CAIX signaling, S4 treatment was particularly effective when combined with cisplatin with no evidence of acquired cisplatin-resistance. These successful anticancer strategies should provide a solid basis for future studies on ureido-substituted sulfamates.