Spatial frequency-based angular behavior of a short-range flicker-free MIMO–OCC link

Shivani Rajendra Teli*, Stanislav Zvanovec, Rafael Perez-Jimenez, Zabih Ghassemlooy

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we provide a solution based on spatial frequency fsf to study the angular behavior of a flicker-free, short-range indoor multiple–input multiple–output (MIMO) optical camera communications (OCC) link. We focus on the experimental investigation of OCC’s performance for the transmitters (Txs) [i.e., light-emitting diode (LED) based arrays] located at the same and different distances from the receiver (Rx) with the off-axis rotation angle θ. We have used two 8 × 8 distributed LED arrays and a commercial low-cost complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) Raspberry Pi camera with the rolling-shutter capturing mode as the Tx and Rx, respectively. The image and the respective communications link quality metrics are measured in terms of the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the rate of successfully received bits with respect to fsf for different camera shutter speeds (SS). A CMOS image sensor noise characterization is carried in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and PSNR. The proposed study provides a 100% success rate in data reception at the optimum θ of 50 at lower captured values of fsf, which is projected onto the image sensor in the form of pixels. Moreover, the effect of channel saturation over fsf is studied with respect to θ and SS and we show that, for θ exceeding the optimum value along transmission range, the fsf area of the Txs reduces to less than ∼50% of the captured Tx units at θ of 0, where no data can be fully recovered.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10357-10368
Number of pages12
JournalApplied Optics
Issue number33
Early online date17 Nov 2020
Publication statusPublished - 20 Nov 2020


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