A high-index polymer coated no-core fiber (PC-NCF) is effectively a depressed core fiber, where the light is guided by the anti-resonant, inhibited coupling and total internal reflection effects, and the dispersion diagram shows periodic resonant and anti-resonant bands. In this article, the transmission spectra of the straight and bent PC-NCFs (length > 5 cm) are measured and analyzed from a modal dispersion perspective. For the purpose of the study, the PC-NCFs are contained within a fiber hetero-structure using two single-mode fiber (SMF) pigtails forming a SMF-PC-NCF-SMF structure. The anti-resonant spectral characteristics are suppressed by the multimode interference in the PC-NCF with a short fiber length. The increase of the length or fiber bending (bend radius > 28 cm) can make the anti-resonance dominate and result in the periodic transmission loss dips and variations in the depth of these loss dips, due to the different modal intensity distributions in different bands and the material absorption of the polymer. The PC-NCFs are expected to be used in many devices including curvature sensors and tunable loss filters, as the experiments show that the change of loss dip around 1550 nm is over 31 dB and the average sensitivity is up to 14.77 dB/m-1 in the bend radius range from ∞ to 47.48 cm. Our study details the general principles of the effect of high-index layers in the formation of the transmission loss dips in fiber optics.