The Effect of a Second Runner on Pacing Strategy and RPE During a Running Time Trial

Deryn Bath, Louise Turner, Andrew Bosch, Ross Tucker, Estelle Lambert, Kevin Thompson, Alan St Clair Gibson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)


The aim of this study was to examine performance, pacing strategy and perception of effort during a 5-km time-trial while running with or without the presence of another athlete. Eleven non-elite male athletes participated in five 5-km time trials; two self-paced, maximal effort trials performed at the start (TT1) and end (TT2) of the study, and three trials performed in the presence of a second runner. In the three trials, the second runner ran either in front of the subject (Fast paced trial, FPT), behind the subject (Slow paced trial, SPT), or next to the subject (Equal paced trial, EPT). Performance times, heart rate, RPE, and a subjective assessment of the effect of the second runner on the athlete's performance were recorded during each of the trials. There was no significant difference in performance times, heart rate or RPE between any of the five trials. Running speed declined from the 1st to the 4th kilometre and then increased for the last kilometre in all five trials. Following the completion of all trials, nine of the eleven subjects perceived it to be easier to complete the 5-km time-trial with another runner in comparison to running alone. While the athletes perceived their performance to be improved by the presence of another runner, their pacing strategy, running speed, heart rate and RPE were not significantly altered. These findings indicate that an athlete's subconscious pacing strategy is robust and is not altered by the presence of another runner.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)26-32
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012


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