The influence of ecosystems on the entrepreneurship process: a comparison across developed and developing economies

Maribel Guerrero*, Francisco Liñán, F. Rafael Cáceres-Carrasco

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)
17 Downloads (Pure)


Over the past 30 years, the academic literature has legitimised the significant impact of environmental conditions on entrepreneurial activity. In the past 5 years, in particular, the academic debate has focused on the elements that configure entrepreneurship ecosystems and their influence on the creation of high-growth ventures. Previous studies have also recognised the heterogeneity of environmental conditions (including policies, support programs, funding, culture, professional infrastructure, university support, labour market, R&D, and market dynamics) across regions/countries. Yet, an in-depth discussion is required to address how environmental conditions vary per entrepreneurial stage of enterprises within certain regions/countries, as well as how these conditions determine the technological factor of the entrepreneurial process. By reviewing the literature from 2000 to 2017, this paper analyses the environmental conditions that have influenced the transitions towards becoming potential entrepreneurs, nascent/new entrepreneurs, and established/consolidated entrepreneurs in both developed and developing economies. Our findings show why diversity in entrepreneurship and context is significant. Favourable conditions include professional support, incubators/accelerators, networking with multiple agents, and R&D investments. Less favourable conditions include a lack of funding sources, labour market conditions, and social norms. Our paper contributes by proposing a research agenda and implications for stakeholders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1733–1759
Number of pages27
JournalSmall Business Economics
Issue number4
Early online date21 Aug 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021


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