Web crippling design of modular construction optimised beams under ETF loading

Kajaharan Thirunavukkarasu, Elilarasi Kanthasamy, Gatheeshgar Perampalam, Keerthan Poologanathan*, Sreekanta Das, Shaun Todhunter, Thadshajini Suntharalingam

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


In recent times, modular construction is considered as one of the most effective construction methods. It is necessary to understand the structural behaviour of modular construction elements for possible improvements. Modular Construction Optimised (MCO) beam is one of the innovative profiles and can be categorised into hollow flange Cold-Formed Steel (CFS) sections. The hollow flanges encourage bending stiffness and flexural performance, in contrast, slender web causes web crippling failure as these members are often subjected to concentrated loads and reactions. Even though research studies regarding MCO beams are very limited, the structural performance of other types of hollow flange beams has been covered in previous studies. However, to date, web crippling behaviour of MCO beams is still unknown and should be investigated to enhance the commercial aspects of MCO beams as this is an innovative section in the modular construction area. To address this research gap, this paper investigates the web crippling capacity of MCO beams under End-Two-Flange (ETF) load case with flanges unfastened to support condition using numerical analysis. Numerical models were developed and validated against the web crippling test results of hollow flange beams available in the literature. Subsequently, parametric numerical analysis (162 models) was conducted for MCO beams with varying key controlling parameters on web crippling capacity. The web crippling capacities of MCO beams were compared with existing codified (AISI S100, AS/NZ 4600) predictive equations and new design equations were developed to accurately predict the web crippling capacity of MCO beam under ETF load case with flanges unfastened condition.
Original languageEnglish
Article number103072
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Building Engineering
Early online date5 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021


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